Working Papers

The Power to Protect. Household Bargaining and Female Condom Use -- Submitted

with Cassidy, R., Groot Bruinderink, M., Janssens, W.J.

Online Appendix here

Abstract: Women may face systematically greater benefits than men from adopting certain technologies, as a result of gender differences in preferences or costs of non-adoption. Yet women commonly hold lower bargaining power, implying that men's preferences may constrain household adoption when decisions are joint. If neither female bargaining power nor male preferences can be easily changed, introducing a version of the technology that is second-best in terms of cost or effectiveness, but more acceptable to men, may increase adoption and welfare. We conduct a field experiment introducing female condoms -- which are less effective and more expensive than male condoms, but often preferred by men -- in a setting with high HIV prevalence. We find strongest adoption of female condoms among women with lower bargaining power, who were previously having unprotected sex, and observe an increase in the likelihood that women have sex.

Do No Harm -- The Welfare Consequences of Behavioural Interventions

with Harrison, G.W., Schneider, M.

 Abstract: The rapid expansion of access to finance, low levels of financial literacy, and increasing complexity of financial products, raises serious concerns about the extent to which consumers are able to make financial decisions that increase consumer welfare. We evaluate the consumer welfare implications of a wide range of behavioural interventions that are typically used in the promotion of financial products. Based on laboratory experiments where subjects make risky choices, we estimate subject's individual risk preferences, and then randomly assign subjects to behavioural interventions before they make insurance purchase decisions. We estimate the expected consumer surplus gained or foregone from observed take-up decisions and compare these across the intervention arms. We show that while our treatments typically increase take-up on average, they reduce consumer welfare. Allowing individuals to self-select interventions, or targeting specific interventions to specific sub-groups, shows potential for welfare improvements. 

Compound Risk and the Welfare Consequences of Insurance -- Submitted

with Harrison, G.W., Martínez-Correa, J., Ng, J.M., Swarthout, J.T.

Abstract: A focus on consumer welfare of financial decisions implies that we cannot rely on direct revealed preference, or purchase of financial products as a metric. It also implies that we need to evaluate financial decisions in terms of the heterogenous preferences and beliefs of consumers. We assess the welfare implications of decisions of individuals to purchase or not purchase index insurance by eliciting individual preferences that are relevant to financial decisions with compound risk: risk preferences over simple and compound risk, probability weighting, and violation of the Reduction of Compound Lotteries (ROCL) axiom. We find that individuals realize, on average, only 48% of the potential welfare improvements that they could have achieved by making decisions more in line with their preferences, and we show that this is strongly driven by excess purchase. A decomposition of the sources of welfare gains and losses shows that subjects who consistently violate ROCL experience larger welfare losses. A between-subject treatment where we vary the choice architecture by presenting the compound risk in a simple and reduced form, suggests that this negative effect of ROCL violations on the welfare of financial decisions can be mitigated.

Risk Sharing and the Demand for Insurance: Theory and Experimental Evidence from Ethiopia - Submitted

with Berg, E., Blake, M.

Abstract: Households, organisations and governments commonly engage in risk sharing. However, the residual risk is often considerable, especially in the case of aggregate shocks in low-income countries. In response, many policy makers consider the introduction of parametric or index insurance. This raises the question of how demand for these insurance products depends on the extent of pre-existing risk sharing. We contribute to the literature in two ways. First, we develop a simple and parsimonious theoretical framework which shows that whilst indemnity insurance is a substitute to risk sharing, index insurance acts as a complement. Second, we provide the first direct experimental evidence on how the extent of risk sharing affects demand for both indemnity and index insurance. In an artefactual field experiment with Ethiopian farmers, the predictions of the theoretical framework are borne out.

Work in Progress

Male and Female Norm Change, Intra-household Bargaining and Domestic Violence.

with Cassidy, R., Janssens, W., Kiani, U.

We ask whose preferences within the household attitudinal interventions should target in order to reduce violence and promote education for girls. We conduct a cluster-randomized control trial across 200 rural villages in Pakistan, in which an attitudinal intervention is targeted at either men, women or both genders. We use incentivized artefactual field experiments to elicit beliefs, attitudes, beliefs about others’ attitudes (“social norms”) and intra-household bargaining.

Intimate Partner Violence, Preferences, and Economic Decision-making.

with Anderberg, D., Cassidy, R., Dam, A.

We ask to what extent violence in the household affects preferences of the spouses, and thereby their cooperation and economic decision making. We conduct an artefactual field experiment with spouses in urban slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to examine the effects of priming women’s experiences of intimate partner violence on their cooperation and economic decision-making.

Incentivising Insurance Promotors to Provide Tailored Consumer Welfare Advise to Pastoralists in Ethiopia

with Barrett, C.B., Gidey, T.G., Harrison, G.W, Jensen, N.D., Schneider, M., Swarthout, J.T.

The rapid expansion of financial products such as insurance, along with low levels of financial literacy, and the increasing complexity of products, raises serious concerns about the extent to which the demand for these products increases welfare for consumers. We apply two insights from behavioural welfare economics in a cluster-randomized control trial with 2000 Ethiopian pastoralists in 240 communities in which we try to improve and evaluate Index-Based Livestock Insurance. The first insight is a recognition that many widely used observable measures, such as product take-up, are not in fact measuring welfare when we allow for the preferences and beliefs that are actually driving choices to purchase or not. The second insight is that heterogeneity of welfare impact might provide an under-utilised and general basis for normatively designing better, conditional interventions. Rather than just providing one-size-fits-all interventions, our behavioural interventions will be tailored to provide specific interventions designed for the behavioural characteristics of those making insurance decisions. These are ``behaviourally smart'' conditional interventions, not unconditional ``nudges.''

Addressing Intimate Partner Violence: Evaluating Interventions with Male Perpetrators vs Female Victims

with Bhalotra, S., Carvalho, J.R., Biroli, P., Vecci, J.

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a marker of conflict, a breakdown of cooperation between partners. Often both perpetrator and victim experienced IPV in childhood and repeatedly selected into violent relationships, and both sides are caught in patterns of behaviours that perpetuate cycles of violence. Therefore, interventions targeting both partners have more potential for success, but engaging perpetrators has proven challenging. We collaborate with the Brazilian judiciary to conduct a randomised control trial which introduces interventions with both partners in parallel.  The male intervention targets men’s violent attitudes and behaviours. The female intervention focuses on empowering women. We investigate their independent and joint impact on relationship status, cooperation, and IPV.

Can teaching adolescents how to set, pursue and evaluate academic goals help improve learning outcomes? Experimental Evidence from Uganda

with Dam, A, Gray-Lobe, G. Kremer, M, de Laat, J.

A Behavioral Approach to Promote Gender Equality and Learning Outcomes for Boys and Girls.

with Dam, A., Gray-Lobe, G., Kremer, M., de Laat, J.